Part I – Critical Frameworks


Genre is a way of classifying a media text. An audience has expectations of a specific genre and will look for codes and conventions. Genre is used as a main marketing tool as its manipulated to a set audience.  this audience have a preconceived idea of the genre. So some what knowing what content the film contains.  This feeling of familiarity is usually what most viewers look for. This is where a break in convention can make a film or it can completely ruin it. Genre can also be formed from multiple genres for example rom-coms. this can be reconciled by having convention from both genres. Some sub-genres work but others do not. Conventions are the structure of everything and they can be recognised very quickly. For example, the colour red appears in pretty much all horrors this is due to the coonotations of red. Red shows danger and colour of blood.

Genre is something I find interesting because I enjoy films of all genre and enjoy how the production has been manipulated to fit in the ‘guide lines’ of a genre. I also enjoy to see original sub genres and how some films try to break convention for good effect even though in penultimately ends in it being bad, even though a good idea audiences wouldn’t like is was it broken whats typical. And finally i enjoy the style changes of genre through the eyes of different directors and how some directors have their own set of conventions.


Narrative is the form and structure though which movies tell stories. Narratives appear throughout media and society – in novels, plays, comic books, television shows and even commercials. Narratives are most common in fiction film, but appear in all basic types of film:  Documentaries , Animated films, Experiment etc. Narratives are Everywhere. A narrative is an account of a string of events occurring in space and time. Narratives do not unfold randomly, but rather as an ordered series of events connected by the logic of cause and effect. This logic of cause and effect ties together character traits, goals, obstacles and actions. Narrative has various theories surrounding it. For example most productions use the “hollywood narrative stature” however to this being overused most films now have become so generic and so typical that audiences are becoming bored. In my opinion theorists such as Vladimir Propp, Claude Levi-Strauss and Tzvetan Todorov have proposed better narrative theories in my opinion. I find this interesting as you look for films that don’t follow the generic codes and that are unpredictable, these films keep the audience guessing and is what i both look and aim for when watching or producing films.


Media representations are the ways in which the media portrays particular groups, communities, experiences, ideas, or topics from a particular ideological or value perspective. 99% of the time productions are normally nothing like real life, as it’s all a constructed representation. I enjoy those productions as close as real life as possible but this is usually not the case because of the many factors involved when constructing a reality. It almost like they over try or over glorify whats ‘normal.’ For example these ‘reality’ TV shows because it all feels so falsified. “It can sometimes give you an incorrect idea of how the world works and that really isn’t good.”However I am forever interested in how people represent others and how incorrectly they do it, i also find it intriguing when watching anything at all it has all be contrasted to represent something or someone in a certain way even though not always intentional. It always biased.


An individual or collective group of people who read or consume any media text. Examples: Radio listeners, Television viewers, Newspaper and magazine readers, Web traffic on web sites. Audience is the people consuming these different media texts and there are many reasons to why we individually find a certain thing entertaining. It mainly relates to our personalities and what we like and don’t like. Along with age and gender that dictates our viewing habits, and this is how audience targeting works.  A media text has to appeal to the right people because it needs to sell. This subject is not overly interesting, however its good to understand as it will help me aim my products at the right audience.


Media regulation is the control or guidance of mass media by governments and other bodies. This regulation, via law, rules or procedures, can have various goals, for example intervention to protect a stated “public interest”, or encouraging competition and an effective media market, or establishing common technical standards. This is purely to protect the consumer, things for example like the BBFC out there to give regulation and censorship on films and TV to make sure its appropriate for one audience and not for another. I strongly agree that you should abide to any media regulation given because if not it can be an offend or have a bad effect on the viewer.

Technology (including digital media)

Technology is something that forever evolves and this certainly has an impact on media industries; this means these companies need to keep up to date with the advancing times as this is a way of avoiding failure. The can be seen in the success of online streaming services and how this has affected shops like Blockbuster. People soon realised that they could watch movies at home without going anywhere and being able to get 100s of movies and TV shows this inexpensive way on all accounts is better for consumers however the shop Blockbuster couldn’t survive or adapt for their competitions to the point it was declared bankrupt in 2010. this has also effect normally TV viewing and advert companies as companies like Netflix doesn’t have any adverts. I don’t really find this interesting as i can see how many advantages of newer technology has and it also so much more ease of access etc, but i am very interested in how much more technology will evolve and how it will effect me.


Production is the period in which the preparation is done and the movie is shot. Once this is complete, the editor will look through all the footage and then subsequently make the film. If the film is part of a big franchise or the lead is a top Hollywood actor, it will usually have a large budget. This doesn’t always guarantee success, whether it be financially or critically, and movie studios can lose a lot of invested money.

Distribution is the release of a movie so it’s available for an audience. The distributor will also handle the exhibition of a movie and this is where film promotion comes in. There has been a recent trend of releasing movies simultaneously on streaming services and in cinemas.

Marketing and Promotion

The management process through which goods and services move from concept to the customer, to then the publicising of a product or organisation to increase sales or public awareness. This is how a film is advertised. It normally done with trailers, posters, actors on chat shows, etc. The studio backing the project obviously want the film to do well financially, to ensure success it advertises. An example of this is the The Dark Knight in 2007, the studio implemented a unique viral marketing campaign in which they produced  an ‘interactive’ experience where fans could visit web pages and try to find hidden messages and uncover clues that somehow related to the movie. “The team behind this obviously put an incredible amount of effort into it and the whole thing is fascinating to see unfold (the video below chronicles the order of events).”